Treaty Three – The North-West Angle Treaty
What First Nations were included in this treaty? Treaty number three was an agreement between the crown (Queen Victoria) and the Ojibway First Nation. It covered a vast area and the band leaders as well as the area they governed are listed in the treaty.
What did these people want from the treaty process? In the North-West Angle Treaty, concluded in 1873, there is little documentation of what the Indians hoped to gain, going in to the treaty process. A mention of peace and good will is noted, however, this was written on behalf of the Queen’s representatives. The Treaty details the extent of land ceded to the Government of Canada, along with the size of the reserves allocated to the Indians, and the framing tools, salary, and other terms of the treaty.
What did the government want from the treaty process? The government wanted all of the Ojibway’s rights, titles and privileges whatsoever, to the lands. embracing an area of fifty-five thousand square miles which composed of northwestern Ontario and a small part of eastern Manitoba.
What were the treaties core provisions? In exchange, the government laid aside reserves for the First Nations to farm, hunt, fish or administer in their own way, with one square mile (no more) given to each family. Furthermore, schools were granted for the reserves along with money and some basic tools such as axes. The government did however, retain the right to use the reserved land for public works or settlement if it was needed and that in that instance, the First Nations of that reserve would be compensated.
Why was a treaty required in this time and place? This treaty was required at this time and place because Canada wanted to use the land for agriculture, minerals and settlement. Also Canada was looking to secure communications with the Northwest Territories, which included the route for the Canadian Pacific Railway. This treaty gave Canada the land up to the Northwest angle of the Lake of the Woods.
What is the status of the treaty today? Since the treaty was last signed in 1874, this proves that the effects of Treaty Three are no longer up held. However in current day society there are still aspects of this treaty in use, such as the connection between Canadian government and Native reserves.