Question 1: Why was a treaty required in this time and place?
By: Luke Berlemont
The Treaty was required at this time, July 1874 because the Northwest Mounted Police was moving into the area in preparation for settlers. Steps were also being made to build a telegraph line through the area. The Government believed that the activity would ‘unsettle and excited’ the Natives in the local area and so sought to make a treaty with them to secure the region and avoid any future conflicts
Question 2: What First Nations were included in this treaty?
By: Samantha Stark
Treaty 4 was established between Queen Victoria and the Cree and Salteaux First Nations. Areas covered by Treaty 4 are the current southern Saskatchewan as well as small areas of today’s western Manitoba and southeastern Alberta. The first signings of this treaty took place at Fort Qu’Appelle, Saskatchewan on September 15, 1874.
Question 3: What did these people want from the treaty process? (Answers in 3rd+4th+5th paragraph on 332, 1st+3rd paragraphs on 333).
By: Stephanie Cummings
After the formation and signing of the Treaty, Her Majesty, the year after and annually after that, will pay the Indians in cash an amounted sum. Each Chief will receive twenty-five dollars, each head man (no more than four to a band) will receive fifteen dollars, and every other Indian, man, woman and child will each receive five dollars.
Her Majesty also agrees that each Chief and each head man (no more than four to a band) will once in every three years receive a proper outfit of clothing. Every year she will distribute to among the different bands powder, shot, ball and twine, all to the value of seven hundred and fifty dollars, as well as each Chief shall receive in recognition of the closing of the treaty, a suitable flag.
Any Indians who currently are or will be settled in the reserves and begin to turn the soil will receive two hoes, one spade, one scythe, and one axe (for every family), plus enough seed, wheat, barley, oats and potatoes to plant on the lands. Also, for every tenth family, they will receive one plough and two harrows. Each Chief will receive one plough, two harrows, one yoke of oxen, one bull, four cows, a box of regular carpenter’s tools, five hand-saws, five augers, one cross-cut saw, one pit saw, the necessary files, and one grindstone. All of these items will be given to encourage the practice of agriculture among the Indians.
Her Majesty also agrees to maintain a school in the reserve in each band, as soon as the Indians have settled in their reserve area.
Her Majesty will also approve the Indians having the right to hunting, trapping and fishing.
Question 4: What did the government want from the treaty process?
By: Tabatha Worth
The government only wanted to negotiate the amount of land that was needed but this caused them to overlook what the natives needed. Because of the U.S and the fur trade, the number of buffalo and other animals that the natives hunted to live had decreased in numbers, causing a great concerned for the Indians and Metis. A long with the land, the government wanted to keep peace and good order with everyone which the Chiefs and head men were responsible for making sure that happenned. They wanted rights to deal with any settler occupying the land with a fair quantity given to the Indians. The land that the Government claimed would be paid for or some other compensation. However, the Government encouraged the practice of agriculture on the lands.
Question 5: What were the treaty’s core provisions?
By: Caitlin Cohoon
Treaty 4 included several agreements between the First Nations tribes and the government of Canada. The Cree and the Saulteaux were to give up their rights to the area of land stipulated by the treaty, and in return the government would create reserves for them to live on. Each family of five would be given one square mile of land on these reserves and the size of the allocated land would be either increased or decreased depending on the size of the family. However, the Cree and the Saulteaux were not permitted to sell the land allotted to them. In return, the government would establish schools on the reserves, would provide an annual stipend of $25.00 per chief, $15.00 per head man and $5.00 per man, woman and child living on the reserves, and would provide such supplies as spades, ploughs, livestock, seed, ammunition, and carpentry tools.